<body><script type="text/javascript"> function setAttributeOnload(object, attribute, val) { if(window.addEventListener) { window.addEventListener('load', function(){ object[attribute] = val; }, false); } else { window.attachEvent('onload', function(){ object[attribute] = val; }); } } </script> <div id="navbar-iframe-container"></div> <script type="text/javascript" src="https://apis.google.com/js/plusone.js"></script> <script type="text/javascript"> gapi.load("gapi.iframes:gapi.iframes.style.bubble", function() { if (gapi.iframes && gapi.iframes.getContext) { gapi.iframes.getContext().openChild({ url: 'https://www.blogger.com/navbar.g?targetBlogID\07521783324\46blogName\75thomasblog\46publishMode\75PUBLISH_MODE_BLOGSPOT\46navbarType\75BLUE\46layoutType\75CLASSIC\46searchRoot\75http://thomasr6t9.blogspot.com/search\46blogLocale\75en_US\46v\0752\46homepageUrl\75http://thomasr6t9.blogspot.com/\46vt\75-2126332110850727161', where: document.getElementById("navbar-iframe-container"), id: "navbar-iframe" }); } }); </script>

Tuesday, February 14, 2006

Mississippi-School-for-Mathematics-and-Science



The Mississippi School for Mathematics and Science (MSMS) is a public residential high school located in Columbus, Mississippi on the campus of the Mississippi University for Women. Founded in 1987, it graduates about 110 students per year. Students are selected from tenth-grade applicants across the state. Although MSMS focuses on mathematics and science, it also excels at the humanities, particularly history and literature. The Mississippi School for the Arts is a sister school of MSMS. Both schools are under budgetary threat as of February, 2005. urrently, students attend free of tuition or room and board, although current discussions in the Mississippi Legislature have suggested means-based tuition. MSMS is a member of the NCSSSMST.

Larch-Prover



Larch Prover, or LP for short, is an interactive theorem proving system for multisorted first-order logic. It is currently used at MIT and elsewhere to reason about designs for circuits, concurrent algorithms, hardware, and software. Unlike most theorem provers, which attempt to find proofs automatically for correctly stated conjectures, LP is intended to assist users in finding and correcting flaws in conjectures -the predominant activity in the early stages of the design process. LP works efficiently on large problems, has many important user amenities, and can be used by relatively na�ve users. It was developed and is being maintained by Stephen J. Garland and John V. Guttag at the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science.

Monday, February 13, 2006

USS-Sabalo-(SS-302)




Sabalo (SS-302) after conversion to
a Fleet Snorkel type, post-1952.
align center Career align center
Ordered:
Laid down: 5 June 1943
Launched: 4 June 1944
Commissioned: 19 June 1945
Decommissioned: 1 July 1971
Struck: 1 July 1971
Fate: sunk as a target, February 1973
General Characteristics
Displacement,
Surfaced:
Submerged:
1,526 long tons (1550 tonne),
2,424 tons (2460 t)
Length: 311.8 Foot (unit of length) (95.0 metre)
Beam: 27.3 ft (8.3 m)
Draft: 15.3 ft (4.6 m)
Depth limit: 400 ft (120 m)
Speed,
Surfaced:
Submerged:
20.25 knot (speed)s (37 km/h)
8.75 knots (16 km/h)
Propulsion: four 5400-hp Diesel engines,
four 2740-hp (2.0 Megawatt) electric motors,
two propellers
Submerged Endurance: 48 hours at 2 knots
Patrol Endurance: 75 days
Range: 11,000 nautical mile (20,000 km)
surfaced at 10 knots
Complement: 6 Officers, 60 Enlisted
Armament: ten 21 torpedo tubes,
(six forward, four aft),
24 torpedoes,
one 4 /50 deck gun,
four machine guns
Motto: USS Sabalo (SS-302), a Balao class submarine submarine, was the first submarine and second ship of the United States Navy to be named sabalo, another name for the tarpon, a large, silvery game fish of the herring group, found in the warmer parts of the Western Atlantic. The first Sabalo retained her name when she was acquired by the Navy during World War I, the second was named for the fish by the Navy. Sabalo (SS-302) was laid down on 5 June 1943 by Cramp Shipbuilding Co., Philadelphia, Pa., launched on 4 June 1944, sponsored by Mrs. Charles M. Oman, and commissioned on 19 June 1945 at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Lt. Comdr. James G. Andrews in command. After trials in the Delaware River, Sabalo proceeded to the Naval Submarine Base New London, for shakedown and training. She operated locally from New London until June 1946 when she began preparations for inactivation. She decommissioned on 7 August at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, and was placed in reserve in the Atlantic Reserve Fleet, remaining there until recommissioning on 1 June 1951 at New London. In August 1951, Sabalo departed New London for Pearl Harbor, her new home port. Arriving in September, she conducted local operations into February 1952. From 18 February to 28 September, she underwent conversion to a Greater Underwater Propulsion Power Program Fleet Snorkel Program type at the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard. This was a less-extensive alteration than the Greater Underwater Propulsion Power Program conversion received by many World War II Fleet boats during the same general period. Sabalo was given a new streamlined sail, but retained her original hull form. Following this conversion, she alternated local operations with simulated war patrols while deployed to the western Pacific. The first deployment, 26 December 1952 to 26 June 1953, was followed by a second, mid-November 1954 to 10 May 1955. Her third deployment, 17 September � 4 November 1955, was conducted off Alaska and among the eastern Aleutian Islands. In September 1966, Sabalos home port was changed to San Diego, and she resumed training operations off the west coast, primarily providing services to ships undergoing ASW, type, and refresher training. Sabalo served in that capacity as a unit of the US 1st Fleet until decommissioned on 1 July 1971. Struck from the Naval Vessel Register the same day, she was sunk as a target in SubSinkEx Project Thurber off San Diego, California in February 1973.
See USS Sabalo for other ships of the same name.

References

DANFS

Baseball-Hall-of-Fame



The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, located at 25 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, United States, is a semi-official museum operated by private interests that serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in North America, the display of baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, and the honoring of persons who have excelled in playing, managing, and serving the sport. In articles and discussions on baseball, the phrase Hall of Fame refers most often to the list of these honorees, rather than the physical museum. The Halls motto is Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations.
List of members of the Baseball Hall of Fame (alphabetical)
List of members of the Baseball Hall of Fame (chronological)

Foundation

The Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939 by the Clark Foundation, a private organization based in Cooperstown that traces its money to the original Singer Corporation. The Foundation sought to bring tourists to Cooperstown, which had been doubly damaged by the Great Depression, which decimated the local tourist trade, and Prohibition, which was devastating to the local hops industry. A legend that U.S. Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall, though in fact the story is completely false. The Major League Baseball, seeing the marketing opportunity, soon began cooperating with the Hall of Fame in marketing it and acquiring artifacts for display there. Today the Hall of Fame features many exhibits on the games history. An extensive collection of memorabilia is on display to the public as well, including historic home run balls, scorecards, and bats, caps, and uniforms used by the games greatest players. The Hall of Fame also includes an art collection and a substantial research library with online search capabilities. The town of Cooperstown also includes Doubleday Field, where the Hall of Fame Game featuring two major league teams is held every year on the same weekend as the annual induction ceremony.

Membership

Among baseball fans, Hall of Fame means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, but also the pantheon of players, manager (baseball), umpire (baseball) and builders who have been named to enshrinement there. The first five men elected were superstars Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, named in 1936. As of January 2005, 260 men had been elected or appointed to the Hall of Fame, including 212 players, 17 managers (many of whom also played), 8 umpires, and 23 builders, executives, and organizers. 26 men have also been awarded the Ford C. Frick Award for excellence in broadcasting, while 56 have received the J.G. Taylor Spink Award for excellence in baseball writing. Players are currently inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers Association of America (or BBWAA), or the Veterans Committee, which is now composed of living Hall of Famers and recipients of the two major awards. Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience, who passes a screening committee (which removes from consideration players of clearly lesser qualification) is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years membership or more. From a final ballot typically including 25-40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players, until the late 1950s, voters were advised to cast votes for the maximum 10 candidates. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player who is named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to later ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration, even by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored the eligibility of these dropped players, while their names will not appear on future BBWAA ballots, they may be considered by the Veterans Committee. Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction even though they have not met all requirements. This has resulted in only two inductions, when Lou Gehrig was specially elected shortly after his retirement in 1939, and when Addie Joss was elected in 1978 despite only playing in nine seasons. Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before their fifth year of retirement, then that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after their death. Roberto Clemente, who died in a plane crash in 1972, is the only current Hall of Fame member for whom the 5-year minimum was waived. If a player fails to be elected by the BBWAA within 20 years of their retirement from active play, he may be selected by the Veterans Committee, which now votes every two years. The Veterans Committee also votes every fourth year on candidates from among managers, umpires, executives or builders. Negro League baseball players may again be considered at some point, the Hall is currently conducting a study on African American players between the late 19th century and the integration of the major leagues in 1947. Predictably, the selection process catalyzes endless debate among baseball fans over the merits of various candidates. Even players already elected remain for years the subjects of discussions as to whether their elections were deserved or in error.

Controversy

The most lasting controversy in Hall of Fame elections is the role and composition of the Veterans Committee. Few, if any, of the BBWAA selections have been particularly controversial. Prior to its recent restructuring, the Veterans Committee had, at times, seemed to pass over the most worthy players in order to enshrine contemporaries and teammates of the committee members. This tendency was most pronounced during the tenure of Frankie Frisch and Bill Terry, from 1967 to 1976. During this time, 8 players were elected whose Hall of Fame credentials were (at best) tenuous, but who had played with Frisch or Terry with the San Francisco Giants or St Louis Cardinals. The revamped Veterans Committee has held two elections to date � in 2003 for both players and non-players, and 2005 for players only. No individual was elected either time, some are already starting to doubt whether the new Veterans Committee will ever elect a player. X3oDMTBpNWZic251BF9TAzI1NjY0ODI1BHNlYwN0aA ?slug ap-halloffame&prov ap&type lgns A further controversy erupted in 1982, when it emerged that some historic items bequeathed to the Hall had been sold on the collectibles market. It subsequently transpired that these had been lent to the Baseball Commissioners Office, from where they had been taken and sold to offset personal financial problems by Joe Reichler, an assistant to Commissioner Bowie Kuhn. Under pressure from the New York Attorney General, the Commissioners Office made reparations, but damage had been done to the Hall of Fames reputation. An ongoing controversy facing the Hall of Fame is that of the status of Shoeless Joe Jackson and Pete Rose. Jackson and Rose were both permanently banned from baseball for actions related to gambling on their own teams - Jackson was determined to have conspired to lose the 1919 World Series on purpose, and Rose voluntarily accepted a permanent spot on the ineligible list in return for Major League Baseballs promise to make no official finding in relation to alleged betting on the Cincinnati Reds when he was their manager in the 1980s. (Baseballs Rule 21, prominently posted in every clubhouse lockerroom, mandates permanent banishment from the sport for having a gambling interest of any sort on a game in which a player or manager is directly involved.) While Jackson and Rose had outstanding playing careers that would usually merit Hall of Fame induction, the Hall of Fame disallows election of anyone on the permanent suspension list. (Many others have been permanently suspended, but none have Hall of Fame qualifications on the level of Jackson or Rose. A select few, such as Hal Chase and Eddie Cicotte, would be reasonable candidates had they not been barred.) Baseball fans are deeply split on the issue of whether these two should be exonerated, remain banned, or (in the case of Rose, who is still living) be inducted with the caveat that he cannot reenter the game in any other way.

Sunday, February 12, 2006

Battle-of-Fontenoy



The Battle of Fontenoy was fought at Fontenoy in the Austrian Netherlands on May 11, 1745, during the War of Austrian Succession. France forces under Maurice, comte de Saxe (the Mar�chal of Saxe, an illegitimate son of King Frederick Augustus I of Poland) were besieging Tournay. An Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army under the William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland advanced to the relief of Tournay, with the British forces attacking French positions uphill. The French lost 5000 men, while the British lost 9000 men, an effective defeat for Cumberlands forces. Whilst Cumberlands courageous attack on the superior positions of the French army was unsupported by his allies and his forces had to retreat, the Duke accounted well for himself. The brigade which he commanded in the attack included the Scottish Highlands Black Watch regiment. Although they had joined the British forces on the continent in 1743, this was their first battle, their courageous determination to press the attack greatly impressed the Duke of Cumberland, and they introduced the then novel technique of hurling themselves to the ground when a volley was fired at them, then leaping to their feet and firing back. This Highland way of fighting may have been learned in their previous role of policing the highlands. However, whilst they were away the Jacobite Rising gstarted and in the autumn of 1745 the Black Watch was moved to the South of England to help with defence plans against any possible French invasion while the British were preoccupied further north. (NB. This battle should not be confused with the two Battle of Fontenay, which occurred at a different location, in 841 and 1944.)

Kaki-Hunter



Kaki Hunter (b. 1955). American actress, architect & writer. As an actress she first found success in starring roles in the movies Roadie (1980) and Willie & Phil (1980). She went on to become famous as a key female star in the famous Porkys series of three comedy movies (1982 to 1985), after which she retired from acting. Kaki is now a teacher of white water rafting in Utah, and also a world expert in rammed earth construction methods. She is the author of the definitive how-to book Earthbag Building (Natural Building Series, 2004).

Saturday, February 11, 2006

Nathaniel-Drinkwater



Nathaniel Drinkwater is a fictional character officer in the British Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, the protagonist of a series of novels by Richard Woodman.

Life

According to Woodman, Drinkwater was born on 28 October 1762 to a poor family. His naval career started in 1779. His patron, Lord Dungarth, encouraged him to keep out of the battleships to indulge in smaller, and more interesting fictionally, engagements, with a series of secret missions later in his career. His French enemy, Edouard Santhonax appears in several books.

The Nathaniel Drinkwater novels

The novels, in chronological order An Eye of the Fleet A Kings Cutter A Brig of War The Bomb Vessel The Corvette 1805 Baltic Mission In Distant Waters A Private Revenge Under False Colours The Flying Squadron Beneath the Aurora The Shadow of the Eagle Ebb Tide

Mercury-9



Mercury 9
Mission Insignia
Mission Statistics
Mission Name: Mercury MA-9
Call Sign: Faith 7
Number of
Crew Members: 1
Launch: May 15, 1963
13:04:13 UTC
Cape Canaveral
Complex 14
Landing: May 16, 1963
23:23:02 UTC
~27� 30 N - 176� 15 W
130 km SE
Midway Is. Pacific
Duration: 34 h 19 min 49 s
Number of
Orbits: 22
Distance
Traveled: 546,167 mi
878,971 km
Maximum
velocity: 17,547 mph
28,239 km/h
Peak acceleration: 7.6 g (75 m/s�)
Mass: 1,360.8 kg
Crew Picture
Gordon Coooper Atlas 9.jpg thumb 150px MA-9 launch. (NASA)

Crew

Gordon Cooper

Backup Crew

Alan B. Shepard

Mission Parameters

Mass: 1,360.8 kg
Perigee: 161 km
Apogee: 267 km
Inclination: 32.5�
Period: 88.5 min

Mission Highlights

Mercury 9 was the last United States Mercury program manned space mission, launched on May 15, 1963 from Launch Complex 14 at Cape Canaveral, Florida. The capsule was named Faith 7 and it completed 22 Earth orbits piloted by astronaut Gordon Cooper. The Atlas (rocket) rocket was 130-D, and the Mercury spacecraft was 20. The flight of Mercury 8 had been so nearly perfect that some at NASA thought America should quit while it was ahead and make Mercury 8 the last Project Mercury, and not risk the chance of future disaster. They thought NASA had pushed the first-generation Mercury hardware far enough, and taking more chances on another longer mission were not warranted. They thought it was time to move on to the Gemini program. Manned Spacecraft Center officials, however, believed that the Mercury team should be given the chance to test man in space for a full day. In September, 1962, NASA concluded negotiations with McDonnell Aircraft Corporation to modify four Mercury spacecraft (12, 15, 17 and 20) to a configuration that supported a one-day mission. In November, 1962, Gordon Cooper was chosen to pilot the MA-9 mission and Alan Shepard was picked as backup. On April 22, 1963 Atlas 130-D and Faith 7 - S/C 20 were stacked on the launch pad at Launch Complex 14. Because MA-9 would orbit over nearly every part of the world from 32.5 degrees north to 32.5 degrees south, a total of 28 ships, 171 aircraft, and 18,000 servicemen were assigned to support the mission. When Cooper boarded Faith 7 at 6:36 am on the morning of May 14, he found a little gift that had been left for him. Alan Shepard had left behind a plumbers helper (suction-cup handled device that unclogs drains) as a joke. Instructions on the handle said, Remove Before Launch. The gift didnt make the trip. Neither did Cooper that day. Various problems with radar in Bermuda and the diesel engine that rolls back the gantry caused the launch to be cancelled until May 15. At 8:00:13, May 15, 1963, Faith 7 was launched from Launch Complex 14. At T+ 60-seconds, the Atlas started its pitch program. Shortly afterward, MA-9 passed through Max-Q. At T+ 2-minutes and 14-seconds Cooper felt BECO (Booster Engine Cutoff) and staging. The two Atlas booster engines had been left behind. The Launch Escape Tower was then jettisoned. At T+ 3-minutes the cabin pressure sealed at 5.5 lb/in� (38 kPa). Cooper reported, Faith 7 is all go. At about T+ 5-minutes was SECO (Sustainer Engine Cutoff) and Faith 7 entered orbit at 17,547 mile/h (7,844 m/s). After the spacecraft separated and turned around to orbit attitude, Cooper watched his Atlas booster lag behind and tumble for about eight minutes. Over Zanzibar on the first orbit, he learned that the orbital parameters were good enough for at least 20 orbits. As the spacecraft passed over Guaymas, Mexico still on the first orbit, capsule communicator Gus Grissom told Cooper the ground computers said he was go for seven orbits. At the start of the third orbit, Cooper checked his list of 11 experiments that were on his schedule. He got ready to eject a six inch (152 mm) diameter sphere, equipped with xenon strobe lights from the nose of the spacecraft. This experiment was designed to test his ability to spot and track a flashing beacon in orbit. At T+ 3-hours 25-minutes Cooper flipped the switch and heard and felt the beacon leave the spacecraft. He tried to see the flashing light in the approaching dusk and on the nightside pass, but failed to do so. On the fourth orbit, he did spot the beacon and saw it pulsing. Cooper reported to Scott Carpenter on Kauai, Hawaii, I was with the little rascal all night. He also spotted the beacon on his fifth and sixth orbits. Also on the sixth orbit, at about T+ 9-hours, Cooper set up cameras, adjusted the spacecraft attitude and set switches to deploy a tethered balloon from the nose of the spacecraft. It was a 30 inch (762 mm) mylar balloon painted fluorescent orange, inflated with nitrogen and attached to a 100 ft (30 m) nylon line from the antenna canister. A strain gauge in the antenna canister would measure differences in atmospheric drag between the 100 mile (160 km) perigee and the 160 mile (260 km) apogee. Cooper tried several times to eject the balloon, but it failed to eject. Cooper passed Walter Schirra orbital record on the seventh orbit while he was engaged in radiation experiments. After T+ 10-hours Zanzibar told Cooper the flight was go for 17 orbits. Cooper was orbiting the earth every 88-minutes 45-seconds at an inclination of 32.55 degrees to the equator. His scheduled rest period was during orbits 9 through 13. He had a dinner of powdered roast beef mush and some water, took pictures of Asia and reported the spacecraft condition. Cooper was not sleepy and during orbit 9 took some of the best photos made during his flight. He took pictures of the Tibet highlands and of the Himalayas. He said he could see roads, rivers, small villages, and even individual houses if the lighting and background conditions were right. Cooper slept intermittently the next six hours, during orbits 10 through 13. He woke from time to time and took more pictures, taped status reports and kept adjusting his spacesuit temperature control which kept getting too hot or too cold. On his fourteenth orbit, Cooper took an assessment of the spacecraft condition. The oxygen supply was sufficient. The peroxide fuel for attitude control was 69 percent in the automatic tank and 95 percent in the manual one. On the fifteenth orbit he spent most of the time calibrating equipment and synchronizing clocks. When he entered night on the sixteenth orbit, Cooper pitched the spacecraft to slowly follow the plane of the ecliptic. Through the spacecraft window he viewed the zodiacal light and night airglow layer. He took pictures of these two dim light phenomena from Zanzibar, across the earths nightside, to Canton Island. The pictures were later found to have been overexposed, but they still contained valuable data. Coopers face and oxygen hose are visible in this b & w, slow scan TV picture taken on the 17th orbit and sent back to earth. (NASA) At the start of the 17th orbit while crossing Cape Canaveral, Florida, Cooper broadcast slow scan black and white television pictures to the ground. The picture showed a ghostly image of the astronaut. In the murky picture, a helmet and hoses could be seen, it was the first time an American astronaut had sent back television from space. On the 17th and 18th orbits he took infrared weather photos and moonset Earth-limb pictures. He also resumed geiger counter measurements of radiation. He sang during orbits 18 and 19, and marveled at the greenery of Earth. It was nearing T+ 30-hours since liftoff. On the nineteenth orbit, the first sign of trouble appeared when the spacecraft 0.05 g (0.5 m/s�) light came on. The spacecraft was not reentering, it was a faulty indicator. On the 20th orbit, Cooper lost all attitude readings. The 21st orbit saw a short-circuit occur in the bus bar serving the 250 volt main inverter. This left the automatic stabilization and control system without electric power. On the 21st orbit John Glenn onboard the Coastal Sentry near Kyushu, Japan, helped Cooper prepare a revised checklist for retrofire. Due to the system malfunctions, many of the steps would have to be done manually. Only Hawaii and Zanzibar were in radio range on this last orbit, but communications were good. Cooper noted that the carbon dioxide level was rising in the cabin and in his spacesuit. He told Carpenter as he passed over Zanzibar, Things are beginning to stack up a little. Throughout the problems, Cooper remained cool, calm and collected. At the end of the 21st orbit, Cooper again contacted Glenn on the Coastal Sentry. He reported the spacecraft was in retro attitude and holding manually. The checklist was complete. Glenn gave a 10 second countdown to retrofire. Cooper kept the spacecraft aligned at a 34 degree pitchdown angle and manually fired the retrorockets on Mark. Fifteen minutes later the Faith 7 landed just four miles (6 km) from the prime recovery ship, the carrier USS Kearsarge (CV-33). The landing spot was just 130 km south east of Midway Island, in the Pacific Ocean. This is south west of Pearl and Hermes Reef. According to NASA SP-45 Mercury Project Summary Including Results of the Fourth Manned Orbital Flight, Faith 7 landed 70 nautical miles (130-km) South East of Midway Island. This would be near 27� 30N - 176� 15W. Splashdown was at T+ 34-hours 19-minutes 49-seconds after liftoff. The spacecraft tipped over in the water momentarily, then righted itself. Helicopters dropped rescue swimmers and relayed Coopers request of an Air Force officer, for permission to be hoisted aboard the Navys carrier. Permission was granted, 40 minutes later the explosive hatch blew open on the deck of the Kearsarge. Cooper stepped out of the Faith 7 to a warm greeting. Again at the end of the MA-9 mission, there was another debate to fly one more Mercury flight, Mercury-10 (MA-10). It was proposed as a 3 day, 48 orbit mission to be flown by Alan Shepard in October, 1963. In the end, NASA officials decided it was time to move on to Project Gemini and MA-10 never flew. The Mercury program had fulfilled all of its goals. Mercury spacecraft 20 - Faith 7, used in the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, is currently displayed at the NASA Space Center Houston, Houston, TX. Mercury spacecraft 20 Faith 7 display page on A Field Guide to American Spacecraft website.

Reference

This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury - NASA SP-4201
NASA NSSDC Master Catalog

Previous Mission:
Mercury 8
Mercury program Next Mission:
Gemini: Gemini 1 (unmanned)
Gemini: Gemini 3 (manned)
Mercury: Mercury 10 (cancelled)


Friday, February 10, 2006

Orange-Township,-Kalkaska-County,-Michigan



Orange Township is a township located in Kalkaska County, Michigan, USA. As of the 2000 census, the township had a total population of 1,176.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 90.2 square kilometer (34.8 square mile). 88.5 km� (34.2 mi�) of it is land and 1.7 km� (0.7 mi�) of it is water. The total area is 1.89% water.

Demographics

As of the censusGeographic references 2 of 2000, there are 1,176 people, 411 households, and 313 families residing in the township. The population density is 13.3/km� (34.4/mi�). There are 596 housing units at an average density of 6.7/km� (17.4/mi�). The racial makeup of the township is 97.79% White (U.S. Census), 0.00% African American (U.S. Census), 1.11% Native American (U.S. Census), 0.09% Asian (U.S. Census), 0.00% Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), 0.00% from Race (U.S. Census), and 1.02% from two or more races. 1.45% of the population are Hispanic (U.S. Census) or Latino (U.S. Census) of any race. There are 411 households out of which 41.1% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.9% are Marriage living together, 9.7% have a female householder with no husband present, and 23.8% are non-families. 17.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 6.1% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.86 and the average family size is 3.22. In the township the population is spread out with 31.1% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 9.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 33 years. For every 100 females there are 102.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 99.0 males. The median income for a household in the township is $35,380, and the median income for a family is $38,472. Males have a median income of $30,761 versus $19,896 for females. The per capita income for the township is $15,448. 10.0% of the population and 7.1% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 11.7% of those under the age of 18 and 9.6% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Broken



This article discusses the music album. For information on the film based on it, see Broken (movie). Broken
EP by Nine Inch Nails
Released September 22, 1992
Recorded Hell, New Orleans, Royal Recorders, Lake Geneva, South Beach Studios, Miami Beach, Village Recorder & A&M, Los Angeles, Pig, Beverly Hills
Musical genre music Industrial
Length 31 minute 32 second
Record label Records / Nothing Records
Record producer Trent Reznor, Mark Ellis (record producer)
Professional reviews
Allmusic.com 4.5 stars out of 5 amg&sql 10:wefjzfjheh6k link
Nine Inch Nails Chronology - Sin (Nine Inch Nails) (1990) Broken (1992) Fixed (album) (1992) Broken (also known as Halo 5) is an EP by Nine Inch Nails released in 1992 in music. Broken is the fifth official Nine Inch Nails release. Although it is an EP, it is usually considered to be the bands second major release because it consists of new material. It was preceded by Pretty Hate Machine and is followed by The Downward Spiral. Released in the autumn of 1992 in music on the heels of a major disagreement between Trent Reznor and his label, TVT Records, Broken was a major departure from Pretty Hate Machine sonically. Trent said that during the long, arduous tour for his debut album, the songs became more aggressive when played by a band (versus overdubbed and sequenced by one person in the studio) and that things often turned violent or horrible on stage as a result of everyone releasing pent-up frustration and anger on their instruments. The effect of Reznors conflict with his label and its influence on Broken can be seen in the albums packaging. After a long list of credits the following appears: no thanks: you know who you fucking are, followed by the slave thinks he is released from bondage only to find a stronger set of chains. The results of this natural progression were louder mixes, more distortion on every instrument imaginable and even on some you wouldnt imagine it on (a classic Mellotron MKIV, for example, which can be heard most particularly on the track Gave Up). The lyrics were less of a departure, for the most part, the themes of unhappiness and discontent still being prominent. The degree to which these feelings were present on Broken, however, were felt much more deeply within the ear canals. Reznor said he wanted the album to be an ultra-fast chunk of death for the listener, something that would make your ears a little scratchy when you listened. It worked. The record reached number 7 on the Billboard magazine 200 chart, while the second track, Wish, even got Reznor a Grammy award award. Trent later joked that his epitaph should read: REZNOR: Died. Said fist fuck and won a Grammy.

Releases

TVT Records / Interscope Records 7 92213-2 - CD
TVT Records / Interscope Records INTD-92213 - CD Re-release

Track Listing

1. Pinion - 1:02 2. Wish - 3:46 3. Last - 4:44 4. Help Me I Am In Hell - 1:56 5. Happiness in Slavery - 5:21 6. Gave Up - 4:08 98. Physical (Youre So) - 5:29 99. Suck - 5:06 The original release had Physical (Youre So) and Suck on a separate 3 disc as tracks 1 and 2 respectively. Later versions have the track list above, with tracks 7-97 having one second of silence each.

Personnel

Martin Atkins - Drums
Trent Reznor - Musical keyboard, Programming, Record producer
Chris Vrenna - Drums, Programming, Beats, Artist

Charting Singles

1992 Happiness In Slavery Modern Rock Tracks No. 13 1993 Wish Modern Rock Tracks No. 25

Thursday, February 09, 2006

Isotopic-tracer



An isotopic tracer, (also isotopic marker or isotopic label), is used in chemistry and biochemistry to help understand chemical Chemical reaction and interactions. In this technique, one or more of the atoms of the molecule of interest is substituted for an atom of the same element, but of a different (often radioactive) isotope. Because the atom has the same number of protons, it will behave in almost exactly the same way chemically as other atoms in the compound, and with few exceptions will not interfere with the reaction under investigation. The difference in the number of neutrons, however, means that it can be detected separately from the other atoms of the same element. Nuclear magnetic resonance typically uses this type of technique to investigate the mechanisms of chemical reactions (basically trying to find out which starting atom ends up where after a reaction), because NMR detects not only isotopic differences, but also gives an indication of the position of the atom. Mass-spectrometer can also be used with this technique, since mass spectra recorded with sufficiently high resolution can distinguish among isotopes based on the different masses resulting from the different number of neutrons. Autoradiograms of gels in gel electrophoresis can also take advantage of this approach. In this technique, radioactive isotopes are used. The radiation emitted by compounds containing the radioactive isotopes darkens a piece of photographic film, recording the position of these compounds relative to one another in the gel.

Nuclear-powered-icebreaker



The Nuclear powered icebreaker is a purpose built ship for use in waters where there is continuous ice. The nuclear powered icebreakers were constructed for the purpose of increasing the shipping along the northern coast of Siberia in waters covered by ice for long periods of time. The nuclear powered icebreakers are far more powerful than their diesel powered counterparts. During the winter, the ice along the northern seaway varies in thickness from 1.2 to 2.0 meters. The ice in central parts of the Polar Sea is on average 2.5 metres thick. Nuclear-powered icebreakers can force this ice at speeds up to 10 knots (19 km/h). In ice-free waters the maximum speed of the nuclear-powered icebreakers is 21 knots.

Russian nuclear icebreakers

Most nuclear powered icebreakers in the Russia service have a swimming pool, a sauna, a movie theater, and a gym. In the restaurants aboard there is a Bar (establishment) and facilities for live music performances. The nuclear powered icebreakers NS Vaigach and NS Taimyr have a crew of 120 each, while the nuclear powered icebreakers of the Arktika design have a crew of more than 200. In all, 2,000 people work aboard the icebreakers, the nuclear powered container ship, and aboard the service and storage ships stationed at the Atomflot harbour. The crew on the civil nuclear powered vessels receive special training at the Makarov college in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Table of nuclear powered icebreakers and icebreaking transports in russia
CommissionedType and Comments
Icebreaker Lenin1959Icebreaker decommissioned 1989
NS Arktika1975Icebreaker Arktika-type not operating
NS Sibir1977Icebreaker Arktika-type not operating
NS Rossiya1985Icebreaker Arktika-type
NS Sevmorput1988Container ship
NS Taimyr1989River Icebreaker
NS Sovjetskij Sojuz1990Icebreaker Arktika-type
NS Vaigach1990River Icebreaker
Yamal (icebreaker)1993Icebreaker Arktika-type
NS Ural1994Icebreaker, Arktika-type

NS Lenin

At its launch in 1957 the icebreaker Lenin was the worlds first civil nuclear powered vessel. Lenin was put into ordinary operation in 1959. The nuclear-powered icebreaker Lenin was taken out of operation November 1989 and laid up at Atomflot, the base for nuclear powered icebreakers, in the Murmansk Fjord.

Russian nuclear icebreaker operations

In all, nine Russian civil nuclear powered vessels have been built in Russia. Eight of these are nuclear-powered icebreakers, and one is a nuclear-powered container ship. In addition to these, the new nuclear-powered icebreaker, the NS Ural, was launched at the shipyard of St. Petersburg November 1993 and delivered at Murmansk during 1994. The NS Vaigach and NS Taimyr were built at shipyards in Finland, while all nuclear-powered icebreakers of the NS Arktika design have been built at the Admiralty Shipyard in St. Petersburg. The nuclear powered icebreakers NS Arktika and NS Sibir are presently not in operation but are stationed at Atomflot for extensive repair. Among other things, the nuclear reactors and turbine generators are to be upgraded as these do not satisfy the safety standards established for newer nuclear powered icebreakers. Neither the NS Arktika, nor the NS Sibir might ever come into operation again due to the operational economics. Unless there is a significant increase of transport in the Arctic it will not be profitable to operate seven nuclear powered icebreakers. It is to be expected that the oldest icebreakers would be the first ones to be taken out of operation.

Use of nuclear-powered icebreakers

The nuclear ice breakers of the Arktika design are used to force through the ice for the benefit of cargo ships and other vessels along the northern seaway. The northern seaway comprises the eastern part of the Barents Sea, the Petchora Sea, the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea and the Eastern Siberia Sea to the Bering Straight. Important ports on the northern seaway are, among others, Dikson, Tiksi and Pevek. The nuclear-powered icebreakers NS Vaigach and NS Taimyr have been built for shallow waters and are usually used on the river Yenisei River to Dikson, where they break through the ice followed by cargo ships with lumber from Igarka and cargo ships with ore and metals from the Norilsk Companys port Dudinka. These nuclear powered icebreakers can also be used as fireboats. The icebreakers have also been used for a number of scientific expeditions in the Arctic. On August 17, 1977, the NS Arktika was the first surface vessel in the world to reach the North Pole.

Arctic tourism

Since 1989 the nuclear powered icebreakers have also been used for tourist purposes carrying passengers to the North Pole. Each participant pays up to US$ 25,000 for cruises lasting three weeks. The NS Sibir was used for the first two tourist cruises in 1989 and 1990. In 1991 and 1992, the tourist trips to the North Pole were undertaken by NS Sovjetsky Sojuz. During the summer of 1993 the NS Yamal was used for three tourist expeditions in the Arctic. The NS Yamal has a separate accommodation section for tourists. The NS Ural contains an accommodation deck customised for tourists. See also: List of Civilian Nuclear Ships

Wednesday, February 08, 2006

Blue-Star-Memorial-Highway-(Michigan)



The Blue Star Memorial Highway in Michigan begins at the border with Indiana in Berrien County, Michigan and extends north to the Straits of Mackinac at the county line of Emmet County, Michigan and Cheboygan County, Michigan counties. It follows the former route of U.S. Highway 31 before it was transferred to freeway. The former route of U.S. Highway 2 between St. Ignace, Michigan and Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan was also designated as part of the Blue State Memorial Highway. However, the state Department of Transporation web site does not list this segment as being part of the highway any longer.

Cabramurra,-New-South-Wales



town, afternoon in summer, looking north from the lookout. Cabramurra is the highest town on the Australian continent, situated at 1,488m in the western Snowy Mountains of of the Great Dividing Range, in the state of New South Wales. It is located at latitude 35.58S and longitude 149.13E. Cabramurra was established in 1954 using prefabrication houses, as part of the Snowy Mountains Scheme and associated Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme. An earlier surveying camp had been established there in 1951. The town was moved some 500m and 20m vertically to a more sheltered position, its current site, in 1974, leaving the original site as the lookout. Cabramurra is a company town, being the place of residence for workers in the nearby Tumut, New South Wales 2 hydro-electric power station and electricity switching yards, and Tumut Pondage dam. The town has a general store and petrol station, primary school, tavern, indoor swimming pool, and tennis courts. The nearest small towns for other shopping are Adaminaby, New South Wales and Tumut, the nearest large towns (that is, with a hospital) are Wagga Wagga, New South Wales and Cooma, New South Wales. Emergency evacuation can be conducted by helicopter. In winter, the town can be covered by snow in for 3-4 months. This has dictated the building design with a very highly pitched roof for the houses. The town is on the road between Kiandra, New South Wales on the Snowy Mountains Highway to the north and Khancoban, Victoria, another hydro-electric power site in the neighbouring state of Victoria (Australia). The road is kept open to Kiandra by Snowplow during winter, also serving the Selwyn Snowfields resort. The road south of the dam is closed to traffic.

Tuesday, February 07, 2006

Kitago,-Minaminaka,-Miyazaki



Kitago (, Kitag-ch) is a towns of Japan located in Minaminaka District, Miyazaki, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. As of 2003, the town has an estimated population of 5,199 and the population density of 29.13 persons per square kilometer. The total area is 178.49 km�. Kitago literally means north shire. This town is a northern part of the former Obi Shire, Himuka.

History

The town was established as a village in 1889 by merging Gonohara, Ofuji, Kitagawachi Villages, then promoted to a town in 1959. Japan-geo-stub

Elodie-Lauten



Elodie Lauten (b. 1950) is a composer described as postminimalist or a microtonalist. She is a former student of her father Errol Parker and of LaMonte Young, Dinu Ghezzo, and Akhmal Parwez. Her music uses many different musical tuning and tuning systems including UMI (Universal Mode Improvisation), a style created by Elodie Lauten combining key signatures and ethnic musical mode as a basis for tonal, polytonal or atonal improvisations, as well as equal temperament and just intonation. Some of her compositions are for an instrument called the trine, a lyre-like instrument she designed. She was a friend and collaborator with Allen Ginsberg.

Discography

Tronik Involutions: From the Gaia Cycle Matrix a Work in Umi (1995/1996). Studio 21/OO Discs: 7108. Composed and performed by Elodie Lauten.
The Deus Ex Machina Cycle: New music for voices and Baroque ensemble (1999). 4Tay Inc.: CD 4013.
Inscapes from Exile (2000). Robi Droli/Newtone: 7004.

Monday, February 06, 2006

Marion-Township,-Livingston-County,-Michigan



There are other Marion Township, Michigan in Michigan. Marion Township is a township located in Livingston County, Michigan. As of the 2000 census, the township had a total population of 6,757.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 94.1 square kilometer (36.3 square mile). 92.1 km� (35.6 mi�) of it is land and 2.0 km� (0.8 mi�) of it is water. The total area is 2.09% water.

Demographics

As of the censusGeographic references 2 of 2000, there are 6,757 people, 2,271 households, and 1,925 families residing in the township. The population density is 73.3/km� (190.0/mi�). There are 2,388 housing units at an average density of 25.9/km� (67.1/mi�). The racial makeup of the township is 97.78% White (U.S. Census), 0.03% African American (U.S. Census), 0.41% Native American (U.S. Census), 0.27% Asian (U.S. Census), 0.01% Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), 0.12% from Race (U.S. Census), and 1.38% from two or more races. 1.04% of the population are Hispanic (U.S. Census) or Latino (U.S. Census) of any race. There are 2,271 households out of which 42.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.7% are Marriage living together, 5.3% have a female householder with no husband present, and 15.2% are non-families. 11.8% of all households are made up of individuals and 3.7% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.97 and the average family size is 3.22. In the township the population is spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, and 7.8% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 37 years. For every 100 females there are 102.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 102.1 males. The median income for a household in the township is $72,378, and the median income for a family is $76,112. Males have a median income of $57,228 versus $33,101 for females. The per capita income for the township is $26,862. 2.0% of the population and 1.0% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 1.9% of those under the age of 18 and 0.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Gennaker



A gennaker is a downwind sail that can be described as a cross between a genoa (sail) and a spinnaker. It is asymmetric like a genoa, but not attached to the forestay over the full length of its luff (like a spinnaker). The gennaker is a specialty sail primarily used on racing boats, bridging the performance gap between a genoa, which develops maximum driving force when the apparent wind angle is between 35 and 60 degrees, and a spinnaker which has maximum power when the apparent wind is between 100 and 140 degrees. Due to its geometry, the sail is less prone to collapsing than a spinnaker and does not require the use of spinnaker pole. stub

Sunday, February 05, 2006

Out-of-box-experience



An Out-of-box Experience (OOBE) is the experience a user has right after a Software program is installed. This term is used by Microsoft for what people see right after installing a Microsoft Windows product. For people who have installed Windows XP, this experience was the initial setup featuring background music and a small helper Microsoft Agent, which appears as a small bouncing blue ball with a white edge, and a Question mark in the center.

Definitions

UsabilityFirst.com defines Out-of-box Experience as the interactions and first impressions a user has with technology when first opening the box it comes in and installing it, as opposed to the point-of-sale experience or the interaction experience of an expert user.

Hairy-ball-theorem



The hairy ball theorem of algebraic topology states that, in laymans terms, one cannot comb the hair on a ball smooth. This fact is immediately convincing to most people, even though they might not recognize the more formal statement of the theorem, that there is no nonvanishing continuous tangent vector vector field on the sphere. Less briefly, if f is a continuous function that assigns a vector in R3 to every point p on a sphere, and for all p the vector f(p) is a tangent direction to the sphere at p, then there is at least one p such that f(p) 0. In fact from a more advanced point of view it can be shown that the sum at the zeroes of such a vector field of a certain index must be 2, the Euler characteristic of the 2-sphere, and that therefore there must be at least some zero. In the case of the 2-torus, the Euler characteristic is 0, and it is possible to comb a hairy torus flat. There is a closely-related argument from algebraic topology, using the Lefschetz fixed point theorem. Since the Betti numbers of a 2-sphere are 1, 0, 1, 0, 0,... the Lefschetz number (total trace on homology (mathematics) of the identity mapping) is 2. By integrating a vector field we get (at least a small part of) a one-parameter group of diffeomorphisms on the sphere, and all of the mappings in it are homotopic to the identity. Therefore they all have Lefschetz number 2, also. Hence they are not without fixed points (which means Lefschetz number 0). Some more work would be needed to show that this implies there must actually be a zero of the vector field. It does suggest the correct statement of the more general Poincar�-Hopf index theorem. One surprising consequence of the hairy ball theorem: The Earth is approximately a ball, and at each point on the surface, wind has a direction. It follows from the theorem that there is always a place where the air is perfectly still.

Saturday, February 04, 2006

Albert-Lasker-Award-for-Clinical-Medical-Research



The Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research is awarded by the Lasker Foundation for the understanding, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and cure of disease. Past winners include:
1946 John Friend Mahoney, Karl Landsteiner (posthumously), Alexander S. Wiener, Philip Levine
1949 Max Theiler, Edward C. Kendall, Philip S. Hench
1950 George Papanicolaou
1951 Elise LEsperance, Catherine Macfarlane, William G. Lennox, Frederic A. Gibbs
1952 Conrad A. Elvehjem, Frederick S. McKay, H. Trendley Dean
1953 Paul Dudley White
1954 Alfred Blalock, Helen B. Taussig, Robert E. Gross
1955 Morley Cohen, Herbert E. Warden, Richard L. Varco, Hoffmann-La Roch Research Laboratories, Squibb Institute for Medical Research, Edward H. Robitzek, Irving Selikoff, Walsh McDermott, Carl Muschenheim
1956 Louis N. Katz, Jonas E. Salk, V. Everett Kinsey, Arnall Patz
1957 Rustom Jal Vakil, Nathan S. Kline, Robert H. Noce, Henri Laborit, Pierre Deniker, Heinz E. Lehmann, Richard E. Shope
1958 Robert W. Wilkins
1959 John Holmes Dingle, Gilbert Dalldorf, Robert E. Gross
1960 Karl Paul Link, Irving S. Wright, Edgar V. Allen
1962 Joseph E. Smadel
1963 Michael E. DeBakey, Charles Huggins
1964 Nathan S. Kline
1965 Albert B. Sabin
1966 Syndey Farber
1967 Robert Allan Phillips
1969 George C. Cotzias
1970 Robert A. Good
1971 Edward D. Freis
1972 Min Chiu Li, Roy Hertz, Denis Burkitt, Joseph H. Burchenal, V. Anomah Ngu, John L. Ziegler, Edmund Klein, Emil Frei III, Emil J. Freireich, James F. Holland, Donald Pinkel, Paul P. Carbone, Vincent T. DeVita, Jr., Eugene J. Van Scott, Isaac Djerassi, C. Gordon Zubrod
1973 Paul M. Zoll, William B. Kouwenhoven
1974 John Charnley
1975 Godfrey N. Hounsfield, William Oldendorf
1976 Raymond P. Ahlquist, J.W. Black
1977 Inge G. Edler, C. Hellmuth Hertz
1978 Michael Heidelberger, Robert Austrian, Emil C. Gotschlich
1980 Cyril A. Clarke, Ronald Finn, Vincent J. Freda, John G. Gorman, William Pollack
1981 Louis Sokoloff
1982 Roscoe O. Brady, Elizabeth F. Neufeld
1983 F. Mason Sones, Jr.
1984 Paul C. Lauterbur
1985 Bernard Fisher
1986 Myron Essex, Robert C. Gallo, Luc Montagnier
1987 Mogens Schou
1988 Vincent P. Dole
1989 Etienne-Emile Baulieu
1991 Yuet Wai Kan
1993 Donald Metcalf
1994 John Allen Clements
1995 Barry J. Marshall
1996 Porter Warren Anderson, Jr., David H. Smith, John B. Robbins, Rachel Schneerson
1997 Alfred Sommer
1998 Alfred G. Knudson Jr., Peter C. Nowell, Janet Rowley
1999 David W. Cushman, Miguel A. Ondetti
2000 Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton
2001 Robert Edwards
2002 Willem J. Kolff, Belding H. Scribner
2003 Marc Feldmann, Ravinder N. Maini
2004 Charles Kelman

V�in�-Tanner



V�in� Tanner (March 12, 1881 � April 19, 1966) was a pioneer leader in Finlands Cooperative. After the Civil War in Finland, in which he hadnt participated, he became Finlands leading Social Democratic Party of Finland politician, and a strong proponent of Parliamentarism. His main achievement was the partys rehabilitation after the Civil War. V�in� Tanner served as List of Prime Ministers of Finland (1926-1927), Minister of Finance (1937-1939), Foreign Minister (1939-1940), and after the Winter War, when he according to Soviet Union wishes had resigned from the Foreign Ministry, as Minister of Trade (1940-1942). To accommodate the Soviet Union, V�in� Tanner was after the Continuation War War-responsibility trials in February 1946, and sentenced to 5� years in prison. After the Continuation War, already while in prison, Tanner was the virtual leader of the United States supported faction of the Social Democratic Party, that eventually came out on top of party strifes lasting most of the 1940s. start box succession box title: Prime Minister of Finland before Ky�sti Kallio years 1926-1927 after Juho Sunila end box bio-stub

Friday, February 03, 2006

Macy,-Indiana



Macy is a town located in Miami County, Indiana. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 248.

Geography

Macy is located at 40�5735 North, 86�745 West (40.959601, -86.129088) GR 1. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.4 square kilometer (0.1 square mile). 0.4 km� (0.1 mi�) of it is land and none of it is covered by water.

Demographics

As of the census GR 2 of 2000, there are 248 people, 82 households, and 62 families residing in the town. The population density is 684.0/km� (1,755.5/mi�). There are 94 housing units at an average density of 259.2/km� (665.4/mi�). The racial makeup of the town is 97.18% White (U.S. Census), 0.00% African American (U.S. Census), 0.40% Native American (U.S. Census), 0.40% Asian (U.S. Census), 0.00% Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), 0.40% from Race (U.S. Census), and 1.61% from two or more races. 1.61% of the population are Hispanic (U.S. Census) or Latino (U.S. Census) of any race. There are 82 households out of which 42.7% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.0% are Marriage living together, 9.8% have a female householder with no husband present, and 23.2% are non-families. 18.3% of all households are made up of individuals and 7.3% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 3.02 and the average family size is 3.51. In the town the population is spread out with 33.9% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 34.3% from 25 to 44, 14.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 31 years. For every 100 females there are 115.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 110.3 males. The median income for a household in the town is $37,188, and the median income for a family is $41,667. Males have a median income of $32,321 versus $15,750 for females. The per capita income for the town is $14,692. 2.6% of the population and 0.0% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 0.0% of those under the age of 18 and 0.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Aelianus-Tacticus



Aelian (Aelianus Tacticus) was a Hellenism military writer of the 2nd century Anno domini, resident at Rome. He is sometimes confused with the Roman writer Claudius Aelianus. Aelians military treatise, Taktike Theoria, is dedicated to Hadrian, though this is probably a mistake for Trajan, and the date A.D. 106 has been assigned to it. It is a handbook of Greek, i.e. Macedonian, drill and tactics as practised by the Hellenistic successors of Alexander the Great. The author claims to have consulted all the best authorities, the chief of which was a lost treatise on the subject by Polybius. Perhaps the chief value of Aelians work lies in his critical account of preceding works on the art of war, and in the fulness of his technical details in matters of drill. Critics of the 18th century � Guichard Folard and the prince de Ligne � were unanimous in thinking Aelian greatly inferior to Arrian, but both on his immediate successors, the Byzantines, and on the Arabs, who translated the text for their own use, Aelian exercised a great influence. The emperor Leo VI incorporated much of Aelians text in his own work on the military art. The Arabic version of Aelian was made about 1350. In spite of its academic nature, the copious details to be found in the treatise rendered it of the highest value to the army organizers of the 16th century, who were engaged in fashioning a regular military system out of the semi-feudal systems of previous generations. The Macedonian phalanx of Aelian had many points of resemblance to the solid masses of pikemen and the squadrons of cavalry of the Spain and Netherlands systems, and the translations made in the 16th century formed the groundwork of numerous books on drill and tactics. Moreover, his works, with those of Xenophon, Polybius, Aeneas and Arrian, were minutely studied by every soldier of the 16th and 17th centuries who wished to be master of his profession. It has been suggested that Aelian was the real author of most of Arrians Tactica, and that the Taktike Theoria is a later revision of this original, but the theory is not generally accepted.

Reference

1911

Thursday, February 02, 2006

Pharyngitis



A sore throat, otherwise known as pharyngitis, is a painful inflammation of the throat. Infection of the tonsils, tonsillitis (American English: tonsilitis), often occurs simultaneously. The major cause is infection, of which 90% are virus, the remainder caused by bacterium infection. Some cases of pharyngitis are caused by irritation from agents such as pollutants, chemicals, or smoke. Treatment of a sore throat will vary according to the cause. Antibiotics are only helpful when a bacterial infection is the cause of the sore throat. For bacterial sore throats, antibiotics have been shown to affect the degree of pain by day 5 and shorten the average natural duration from 7 to 6 days. Antibiotics also decrease the number and severity of the complications of bacterial pharyngitis, specifically post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (an inflammation of the kidney) or rheumatic fever. The incidence of rheumatic fever, dramatically decreased by the use of antibiotics when they were first introduced, seems not to increase as antibiotic use drops off. This may be a result of a change in the prevalence of various strains of bacteria. In underdevelopped regions, untreated bacterial sore throats still give rise to rheumatic heart disease. A popular household remedy is gargling with warm salty water.

References

Retrieve&db pubmed&dopt Abstract&list-uids 11344703 course of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis depends on story of antibiotic treatment med-stub

South-Dock



South Dock is the only surviving fully operational dock in the former Surrey Commercial Docks in Rotherhithe, London. It was built in 1807-1811 just south of the larger Greenland Dock, to which it was connected by a canal lock, it also had a lock giving access to the River Thames. Originally named the East Country Dock, it was renamed in 1850 when the Surrey Commercial Dock Company purchased and enlarged it. The dock was seriously damaged by Germany attacks in World War II, when the area was heavily bombed by the Luftwaffe. Due to bomb damage in Greenland Dock, South Dock became the only exit from that dock. It was emptied of shipping in 1944, drained and used for the construction of concrete sections for the Mulberry Harbours used on D-Day. After the war, it was repaired and the surrounding warehouses rebuilt. The revival of the Surrey Docks proved short-lived with the advent of containerization from the 1960s onwards. The new container ships were much too big to be accommodated in the London docks and, with a few exceptions, most of the river trade moved downriver to Tilbury and other more modern ports around the country. The Surrey Docks closed in December 1970 and were sold to th London Borough of Southwark in 1977. Although most of the Surrey Docks were infilled and converted to residential, commercial or light industrial land, South Dock escaped this fate. The former warehouses were demolished and replaced with residential blocks, while the dock itself was refurbished. In 1994 it reopened as Londons largest marina, with over 200 berths. It is now largely occupied by yachts and residential barges.

Wednesday, February 01, 2006

Chromatid



A chromatid forms one part of a chromosome after it has coalesced for the process of mitosis or meiosis. Each chromosome consists of two exactly identical (sister) chromatids. After they have been pulled apart by the mitotic spindle, chromatids are called chromosomes. Sister chromatids are joined at a point called the centromere. In non-gametic, non-dividing human cells, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, thus 46 chromosomes. When it is ready to divide, each chromosome will replicate itself during the Synthesis phase within its life cycle. Chromosomes that have replicated stay together, held by the previously mentioned centromere. Because one chromosome became two, the two copies are now called sister chromatids, or generally, chromatids. cellbio-stub

Obadiah-Walker



Obadiah Walker (1616 - January 21, 1699) was a British academic and Master of University College, Oxford from 1676 to 1688. He was born at Darfield near Barnsley, South Yorkshire, and was educated at University College, Oxford, becoming a fellow and tutor of this society and a prominent figure in university circles. In July 1648, an act of parliament deprived him of his academic appointments, and he passed some years in teaching, studying and travelling. He returned to Oxford, England at the English Restoration of 1660, and a few years began later to take a leading part in the work of University College. In June 1676 he became head or Master of the college, and in this capacity he collected money for some rebuilding, and arranged the publication by the college of a Latin edition of Sir John Spelmans Life of Alfred the Great. This was the time of Titus Oates and the Popish Plot, and some of Walkers writings made him a suspect, however, no serious steps were taken against him, although Oxford booksellers were forbidden to sell his book, The benefits of our Saviour Jesus Christ to mankind, and he remained a Protestant, in name at least, until the accession of James II of England. Soon after this event he became a Roman Catholic, and he advised the new king with regard to affairs in Oxford, being partly responsible for the tactless conduct of James in forcing a quarrel with the fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford. Mass was said in his residence, and later a chapel was opened in the college for Catholic worship, he and others received a royal licence to absent themselves from the services of the Church of England, and he obtained another to supervise the printing of Roman Catholic books. In spite of growing unpopularity he remained loyal to James, and when the king fled from England, Walker left Oxford, doubtless intending to join his master abroad. But in December 1688 he was arrested at Sittingbourne and was imprisoned, then, having lost his mastership, he was charged at the bar of the British House of Commons with changing his religion and with other offences. Early in 1690 he was released from his confinement, and spent his last years subsisting largely on the charity of his friend and former pupil, Dr John Radcliffe. Walkers principal writings are: Of education, especially of young gentlemen (Oxford, 1673, and six other editions), Ars rationis ad mentem nominalium libri tres (Oxford, 1673), and Greek and Roman History illustrated by Coins and Medals (London, 1692).

Reference

This entry incorporates public domain text originally from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica.